Technologies Developed & Commercialized

Willow Dust Compost

Willow Dust Compost

Description and salient Technical features

Textile mills generate a variety of cellulosic wastes. Willow-dust (cotton-dust) is the major solid cellulosic waste generated in textile mills processing cotton. It has been reported that the waste harbours significant population of gram negative bacteria namely, Pantoca agglomerans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Beijerinckia indica, Methylobacterium sp. and Xanthomonas sp.

On inhalation of dust by the workers in the mills, the lipopolysachharides present in the cell wall induce allergic reaction which is akin to tuberculosis. Prolonged exposure will lead to tuberculosis. The dust also contains high concentrations of toxic inorganic elements. The severity of Byssinosis has been attributed to the combination of toxic inorganic elements and gram negative bacteria. Willow-dust is a voluminous material and hence storing becomes a problem in textile mills where space is a limiting factor. Even on storage, a lot of heat is generated within the dust, making it prone to the risk of fire. The material is generally disposed off at a very cheap rate and the problem is all the more difficult during rainy season for want of buyers.

Composting: Willow – dust is sprayed with 0.1% NaOH and 10 % microbial consortium and moisture is adjusted to 50% and heaped with regular turnings once in 5 days. It is a biological process during which digestion takes place in the presence of oxygen. The work on composting willow-dust indicated that about 35 percent of the material is lost during this process. The manure obtained by this process after 30 days is of superior quality and has given excellent results based on field trials.

Performance Results

The biomanure obtained after fermentation can be directly used for plants, unlike the spent slurry from cattle waste based biogas plants which requires dewatering or sun drying for immediate use. Analysis of willow-dust along with that of biomanure obtained from willow-dust shows that the willow-dust manure has better NPK contents than cattle-waste.


How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

Preparation of compost from mill waste will help in promoting use of organic manure.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

This will help in keeping the surroundings clean but also improve the health of the mill workers.

Mushrooms on Cotton Stalks

Mushrooms on Cotton Stalks

Description and salient Technical features

The edible mushrooms are delicacy in food and form one of the choicest table dishes. They are rich in protein and an excellent source of vitamins and minerals. Most of the mushrooms have very low starch content and can form an ideal food for diabetic patients. Though, about 2000 species have been reported to be edible, the techniques of artificial cultivation are available only for a dozen of species of which about four are being cultivated on a commercial scale.

These are, Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom), Volvariella spp. (tropical mushroom or paddy straw mushroom), Lentinus edodes (Japanese mushroom) and Pleurotus spp. (oyster mushroom). The button mushroom requires low temperature and grows on fermented substrates whereas paddy straw mushroom grows on unfermented substrates and at an elevated temperature of 35°C. The Japanese and oyster mushrooms also grow on unfermented materials at temperatures of around 20°C and 30°C respectively. Pleurotus spp. has the ability to grow on both fermented and unfermented materials

Performance Results

Mushroom yields upto 600 g per kg of the material and on supplementation with Bengal gram flour @ 3%, as much as 1000 g of fleshy fruiting bodies can be harvested per kg of cotton stalks.

Cost: 3 lakh (Initial Investment) & Mushroom production per day 25 kg


How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

Initial hot water treatment is dispensed with resulted in saving in cost of production.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

Pollution abatement

Bio – gas from Willow Dust

Bio - gas from Willow Dust

Description and salient Technical features

Cotton Textile Mills generate about 80,000 to 85,000 tonnes of solid cellulosic wastes popularly known as willow-dust and cyclone dust. These waste materials are rich in cellulose and hence suitable for biogas production. CIRCOT has therefore developed methods for producing biogas using these materials both by a (i) batch fermentation process and a (ii) semi continuous fermentation process.

In a nut shell, the process involves treating willow-dust with 1% NaOH (w/w) and aerobic digestion for 72 hours followed by anaerobic fermentation. Large scale trials indicated that 1 tonne of willow – dust produces 600 m3 of biogas (equivalent to 18 LPG cylinders of 14.5 kg) in 45 days and 300 kg of good quality biomanure.

Performance Results

Experiments under field conditions on cotton crop under irrigations indicated that application of the biomanure prepared from willow-dust at the rate of 5 tonnes per hectare is equivalent to 10 tonnes of FYM or 80:40:40 of N, P and K per hectare.

Cost: Rs.5-6 lakh (Capital cost)


How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

Willow dust can be used for the production of biogas under high solid loadings which can be used for singeing.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

Pollution abatement

Technology to Dye Cotton Fabric and Yarns with Lac Dye

Technology to Dye Cotton Fabric and Yarns with Lac Dye

Description and salient Technical features

Lac dye is recovered from the lac processing waste water. This natural dye can be easily obtained in 100 tonnes or more quantities annually. Though there is a good demand for natural dyes now a days due to their eco-friendly nature, demand for this dye was poor as it could dye only wool and silk but not cotton and other cellulosics.

Therefore many processors were not recovering this dye. Technology developed consists of making cotton fabric and yarns dyeable with this dye by introducing amino groups onto them by pre¬treatment with either chitosan or a cationic dye fixing agent. Dyed material could be made colour fast to washing by treating it with dye fixing agent or eco-friendly mordants like alum or iron salts which provide different colours as well.

Performance Results

Dyed materials possess satisfactory to good colour fastness to washing, light, perspiration and rubbing.

Cost:

No extra investment is needed as the process can be carried out in regular dyeing machines such as jigger, winch or a dye pot. Cost of dyeing a kilo of cotton material is about Rs.150 -170.


How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

This technology will increase the income of lac processors directly and of lac farmers indirectly as lac dye recovered from process waters will further add to the income. Cottage and small scale dyers such as handloom weavers can get higher returns by using this dye as textiles dyed with natural dyes fetch higher value.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

This technology is beneficial to environment in two ways. Firstly, recovery of dye from lac processing waste waters will reduce its colour and effluent load. Secondly it would partly replace difficult to biodegrade synthetic dye. It would be of special help to cottage and small scale dyeing units in meeting the effluent norms as they do not have access to effluent treatment plants

Synthesis of Monodisperse Nano Zinc Oxide Particles by a Novel Chemical Route

Synthesis of Monodisperse Nano Zinc Oxide Particles by a Novel Chemical Route

Description and salient Technical features

A novel chemical process was developed at CIRCOT for the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide precursors. Soluble starch is used as stabilizing agent. The concentration of soluble starch is a major factor that decides the size of the nanoparticles. These nanoparticles can be applied on to cotton fabrics to impart antibacterial and UV-protection functions.

The average size of ZnO nanoparticles is estimated to be 38 ± 3 nm as measured using a transmission electron microscope (TEM); this was also confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and the effective mass approximation method. The starch content in synthesized nano-ZnO was estimated to be 37.57% by thermo-gravimetric analysis.

Applications:

  • For Nano coating the surfaces of textiles, clothing, and textiles for footwear to have UV blocking, antimicrobial and self-cleaning properties
  • As nanofillers in nanocomposite films suitable for food packaging
  • Coating of paper to impart anti-fungal and UV protection to enhance the shelf-life of paper
  • In cosmetics for UV protection and in medical textiles

Performance Results

The nano-ZnO impregnated cotton fabrics showed excellent antibacterial activity against two representative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Gram negative). Also, nano-ZnO impregnation enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics against UV radiation in comparison with the untreated cotton fabrics.

Cost:

Capital Investment30 lakh
Nano-ZnO production per year:480 kg
Cost of production:19,000/ kg
Selling price:22,000/ kg

Particle Board from Cotton Stalk

Particle Board from Cotton Stalk

Description and salient Technical features

Cotton plant stalk is a renewable agrowatse material, available to the extent of about 30 million tonnes annually in our country. At present it is not being used for any commercial purposes, except as fuel by the rural masses, while the bulk of the stalk is disposed off by burning in the field itself. Technology was developed for preparation of particle boards from cotton stalks.

The process involves chipping of cotton stalks, rechipping, sieving to separate the particles, mixing with binder and catalyst, mat formation, followed by pressing in a hot hydraulic press to get the boards. Good quality particle boards could be prepared using this raw material and these boards were found to have properties on par with boards prepared from forest and other agricultural residues.

Performance Results

Use of cotton stalks as a raw material for particle board industry would fetch an additional income of about 5% to the cotton farmers. Also this would have a positive impact on environment reducing the use of wood for particle board manufacture and thereby contributing significantly to the slowing down of the deforestation process. The boards prepared from cotton stalks have properties conforming to BIS standards. These boards were found suitable for preparation of furniture items using modern machines. The quality of furniture was very well accepted in the market. The boards find applications in furniture making, partitioning, paneling, false ceiling, etc.

Cost: For ten tonne per day capacity plant, the total project cost is 580 lakh (Approximate)


How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

Main beneficiaries will thus be the cotton farmers who will get additional income from the sale of cotton stalks. Avenue for rural industries and employment generation.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

Additional income to farmers, a new raw material for composite board industry, avenues for setting up of rural industry, employment opportunities for rural youth, conservation of forest resources etc.

CIRCOT Calibration Cotton

CIRCOT Calibration Cotton

Description and salient Technical features

CIRCOT is supplying indigenously prepared cotton as reference material to spinning mills, cotton trading houses and various other organisations. Calibration cotton is supplied in a packet containing about 200 g of fibres, uniquely coded and labeled with various important fibre properties like 2.5% span length, uniformity, micronaire, 3.2 mm gauge tenacity etc.

It is expected that the inter packet variability in fibre properties be as low as possible so that the particular lot of reference material serves the need of many users simultaneously. Further, a user may ask for reference cotton with particular length or micronaire or strength value or their combination and as supplier CIRCOT is able to supply it from its available stock with a minimum variation.

Important Highlights of Processing:

  • Basic cotton is normally sourced from market, wherein the best management practices are put in place.
  • Judicious selection of machinery is made from a wide range of various types of cotton opening and cleaning machines available at CIRCOT spinning pilot plants so as to ensure optimum preparation with minimum variation of fibre quality.
  • Provision exists for optimum selection of speeds and settings of opening and cleaning machines as per fibre characteristics.
  • Testing of uniformity is done from collecting samples at various stages and production periods.
  • Calibration cotton produced by CIRCOT is within the quality factor tolerance, signifying homogeneity in preparation and sample integrity as reference material.

Cost: 750 per container of 200g


How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

It is an import substitute.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

Indigenous technology at par in quality with international standards. Saves foreign exchange and supply time.

CIRCOT Miniature Spinning System

CIRCOT Miniature Spinning System

Description and salient Technical features

CIRCOT Miniature Spinning System has been developed for assessment of spinning quality of small cotton fibre samples and for the preparation of fibre sliver and yarn samples. The system consists of fourtable model microprocessor controlled machines (units) : CIRCOT Miniature Carding Machine, CIRCOT Miniature Draw frame, CIRCOT Miniature Sliver to Yarn Spinner & CIRCOT Rotor OE Spinner.

In each of the machines, inverter drive systems have been employed for easy settings of various processing parameters. Roller and other moving components are supported with ball/needle bearings for smooth and friction free operation. Movement of fibres during processing has been so controlled to enable faster processing of samples and for the production of quality yarn. Pneumatic suction systems have been incorporated in the ring frame, rotor spinner and carding machine and in lickerin zone for collection of broken ends/droppings. Optimised tray for guiding of lap and sliver during feeding to the draw frame and tongue-and-groove type chrome plated calendar rollers with provision for changing the trumpet bore size have been used in the draw frame.

Safety: All the machines are fitted with safety and emergency stop switches. The machines are operator friendly and the entire spinning process can be completed within one hour

Performance Results:

Output capacity: 100 g/h (cotton sample)
Manpower: Two (One skilled and one semi -skilled)
Power requirement: Single phase, 0.6 kW motor (for miniature carding, miniature draw frame) and 1kW (for miniature sliver to yarn spinner)

Cost: Rs.7 lakh per unit for total of Rs.28 lakh for 4 units


How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

Fibre samples and their blends weighing as low as 40 g can be processed easily to produce sufficient quantity of yarn for quality evaluation. Highly suitable for optimizing different spinning as well as yarn parameters in bulk spinning process. Eminently suitable for trade, textile mills, research laboratory, educational institutions, training centres and agricultural research stations for assessing spinning quality and potential of small fibre samples. In CIRCOT miniature spinning system, inverter drive systems have been employed for easy settings of various processing parameters. This system is an import substitution. The imported miniature spinning machines commonly used in India are prohibitively costly. The settings of various processing parameters need to be done in the imported machines are through mechanical systems, and as such, are far from exact and need a skilled operator’s intervention.

It saves valuable foreign exchange, yet provides an ultra-modern system for cotton quality evaluation in terms of its spinning potential.

Software – GINERP

Software - GINERP

Description and salient Technical features

GINERP an “Enterprise and Resource Planning Software” has been developed to assist in management of modern ginneries. Major financial activities in ginneries are purchase of seed cotton, sale of bales, sale of cottonseed, maintenance & repairs, purchase of spares, ginning and pressing charges, labour charges for material handling, salary of employees, loan repayment, taxes, insurance, development activities and miscellaneous expenses etc.

These activities are recorded and accounted properly by this software.

GINERP Modules Available: Weighbridge Integration, Asset Management, Human Resource Management, Maintenance, Bale Management, Bale Labeling, Report Generation etc.

Performance Results:

  • User friendly database software with ‘Help’ to assist user in operating the application
  • Easy to maintain records and report generation
  • Easy to simulate performance of plant and cost economics

Cost: Rs.2 lakh

How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

  • Reports capacity utilization information instantly
  • Controls production losses by scheduling maintenance routines
  • Effectively identifies and tracks bales using barcoding and Radio Frequency Identification Technologies
  • Data export from application reports to desired output file formats like MS office documents, PDF etc
  • Customizable internal/external report formats like Slips, Bills/Invoices etc.

Auto-Grooving Machine

Auto-Grooving Machine

Description and salient Technical features

Auto-grooving machine makes helical grooves on the rollers used in roller gins. It consists of main frame, head stock, tail stock and a cutter assembly mounted on a movable trolley. The rotary motion of the roller, forward motion of the trolley and the rotary motion of the saw blade cutter is synchronized together with suitable drive mechanism.

The roller is mounted horizontally between the chuck and the revolving centre. As the trolley with cutter saw moves forward, the roller rotates in clockwise direction. Synchronization between the forward movement of the trolley and clockwise rotation of the roller is ensured in such a way that the roller makes a rotation of 270° when the saw cutter moves from the head stock end to the tail stock end resulting in formation of a helical groove. Similarly eighteen grooves can be made on the roller.


Improvement in the existing system:

The grooving of the rollers after every 16 to 20 working hours is necessary to increase the rough surface for the lint to adhere to the roller at a faster rate. Conventionally, grooving is done manually with hacksaw, hence the formed grooves are not uniform. It requires an hour to groove roller spirally. This job is very laborious and many a times, the grooving is not done at the right time. Auto-grooving machine avoids the manual operation and drudgery involved in this operation It also ensures the timeliness as well as uniformity in grooving.

Safety: The machine is compact, covered with safety guards and operator friendly

Salient technical specifications:

Cutter blade diameter (mm)100
Cutter blade thickness (mm)1.5
Cutter blade speed (rpm)1400
Trolley size (m x m)0.66 x 0.35
Power to drive cutter blade (kW)0.75
Power to drive the roller (kW)0.75
Weight of machine(kg)500
Overall size of the machine (m)2 x0.6×0.7

Performance Results:

Output capacity:6 rollers / h
Number of grooves per roller :18
Number of operator :1 (Semi – skilled)


Cost: Rs.1,50,000 (1.5 Lakh)

How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

The auto-grooving machine can effectively replace the existing manual method of grooving and thereby avoid the drudgery involved in this operation and improves the efficiency of grooving operation.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

Drudgery involved in the manual grooving operation is minimized.

Self-Grooving Rubber Roller

Self-Grooving Rubber Roller

Description and salient Technical features

Self-grooving rubber roller (SGRR) is used as a substitute to leather roller for use in roller gins. Roller is made with nitrile rubber having radial layers of softer rubber compound to form grooves. It comprises of three parts viz. inner hard core, outer ginning body and soft groove area. Rubber roller is formed by inserting rubber discs on the steel shaft and pressed from both the ends and resized as per the requirement of roller gins on a lathe machine.

Effective ginning can be obtained at roller speed of 42 rpm. Lint output with self-grooving rubber roller is about 15-20% higher than the leather roller working at 100 rpm

Improvement in the existing system:

Ginneries are presently using chrome composite leather rollers. The disadvantages with these rollers are lack of consistent output due to faster wear, requirement of periodical grooving is laborious and involves high downtime, chromium contaminated lint and hazardous to workers. Self-Grooving rubber roller for ginning eliminates the periodical grooving as required for leather roller. It eliminates the environmental and health hazard problems of chromium associated with the leather roller.

Performance Results:

Capacity:15-20% more than leather roller
Working life:Double that of leather roller

Cost: Rs.20,000 per roller

How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

Increased and consistent output, long life of roller, avoidance of periodical grooving, reduction in downtime, Eco-friendly roller with no chromium contamination, No health hazards to workers and environmental pollution etc. are some of the advantages of self-grooving rubber roller over the conventional chrome composite leather rollers.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

Environmental and health hazard problems of chromium contamination associated with the leather roller are eliminated.

Portable Gins: Lilliput Gin, CLOY Gin and Hipro-Gin

Description and salient Technical features

These portable ginning machines are useful to breeders, seed companies, traders, marketing agencies and farmers etc. for ginning small seed cotton (kapas) samples for assessing Ginning Percentage and lint obtained can be used for quality evaluation. A chrome leather roller, fixed knife, moving knife and seed grid are the main components that accomplish separation of fibres from the seed.

Power requirements are 0.37, 0.75 and 2.23 kW (single phase), respectively for different models of laboratory gins. Repeated laboratory tests have shown that the pristine quality of the fibre is preserved and no cut seeds are found in the ginned lint. All the machines are provided with safety guards for operator’s safety.

Performance Results:

Capacity 
Lilliput Gin:5 kgseed cotton/ h
CLOY Gin:12 kg seed cotton/ h
Hipro- Gin:50 kgseed cotton/ h

Cost:

Lilliput GinRs.20,000
CLOY GinRs.30,000
Hipro-GinRs.55,000

How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

All these machines are strong & sturdy yet handy and portable. These machines are the import substitution.

CIRCOT – Bajaj Cotton Precleaner

CIRCOT - Bajaj Cotton Precleaner

Description and salient Technical features

Pre-cleaning is necessary to remove the trash content from the seed cotton so as to improve the ginning performance and lint quality. The removal of trash content reduces wear and tear of ginning parts and machinery. CIRCOT has designed and developed inclined and horizontal pre-cleaners as an import substitute which are presently manufactured by Bajaj Steel Industries Ltd, Nagpur and named as CIRCOT- Bajaj pre-cleaners.

Principle of operation :
Pre-cleaners consist of series of spiked cylinders, grid, inlet, outlet, trash screw conveyor. Rotational motion of a cylinder draws the seed cotton inside and agitates across the grid surfaces and thereafter conveys seed cotton across the cleaning surface containing small openings or slots underneath each cylinder. Then separated trash falls through the grids into the trash chamber.

Salient technical specifications:

Number of cylinders4 – 6
Width1200 mm – 1800 mm
Capacity3500 – 6000 kg/h
Power requirement.98 – 5.59 kW

Performance Results

Cleaning efficiency: 40 – 50%

Cost: 2.5 Lakh


How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers / end users:

It improves the quality of lint and reduces wear and tear of ginning parts & machinery. Due to improved grade of cotton, ginners / traders fetch premium rates, which indirectly benefit the cotton farmers.